Typhoid fever study, Richmond, Va. [lantern slide]
Lantern slide. Image taken in Richmond, Va in 1907.
The Richmond Health Department formed in 1906. One of its early initiatives (1907) was to investigate 433 cases of typhoid fever, creating the city’s first systematic study of infectious disease. In 1908, Dr. Ernest C. Levy (1868–1938), head of the Richmond Health Department, published the survey findings in The Old Dominion Journal of Medicine and Surgery. Dr. Levy discussed the generally declining rate of typhoid fever cases in Richmond from 1880 to 1907 but noted several outbreaks of the disease in 1881, 1884 and 1900.
While one cluster of outbreaks in Church Hill was determined to come from a typhoid-infected confectioner, a larger proportion of cases were from properties on the outskirts of the city that generally used well water and lacked sewage systems.
Levy, E. C. and Freeman, A. W. (1908). Certain conclusions concerning typhoid fever in the south, as deduced from a study of typhoid fever in Richmond Virginia. The Old Dominion Journal of Medicine and Surgery, VII (5), November 1908, 315-338.
Carr, Laura (2014).Typhoid fever! The Valentine (blog).
Hughes, Megan (2018). Typhoid fever! The Valentine (blog).
Society for the Betterment of Housing and Living Conditions in Richmond, Virginia (1913). Report on housing and living conditions in the neglected sections of Richmond, Virginia.